Other specified mycobacterial diseases are caused by a variety of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, and others. These mycobacteria can be found in the environment, such as in soil and water, and can be acquired through contact with an infected individual or animal.
Diagnosis of other specified mycobacterial diseases is made through a combination of clinical history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging. The most common laboratory tests used to diagnose these diseases include sputum culture, bronchoalveolar lavage, and blood tests. Imaging tests such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans may also be used to identify the presence of mycobacteria.
Other specified mycobacterial diseases must be differentiated from other infections caused by bacteria, such as tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections, including infections caused by other atypical mycobacteria. Other infections that should be considered in the differential diagnosis include fungal infections, viral infections, and parasitic infections.
Treatment of other specified mycobacterial diseases depends on the type of mycobacteria involved and the severity of the infection. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, depending on the type of infection. For some infections, surgical intervention may be necessary.
The prognosis for other specified mycobacterial diseases is generally good if the infection is treated early and aggressively. Treatment can help to reduce the severity of the symptoms, reduce the risk of complications, and improve the overall outcome. In some cases, long-term follow-up is necessary to ensure that the infection has been completely eradicated.