Bubonic plague is caused by a bacteria known as Yersinia pestis, which is usually transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas or through contact with contaminated materials.
Diagnosis of bubonic plague is made through clinical evaluation and laboratory testing. The laboratory test includes blood cultures, as well as testing of lymph node aspirates, sputum, and throat swabs.
Differential diagnoses include other bacterial diseases such as tularemia, leptospirosis, and rickettsial diseases. It is also important to consider other infectious diseases that may cause similar symptoms such as influenza, meningitis, and mononucleosis.
Treatment includes the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline and streptomycin, as well as supportive care.
The prognosis for bubonic plague is generally good with appropriate treatment. In severe cases, the mortality rate can be as high as 40%.