Chromoblastomycosis is caused by a group of fungi called dematiaceous fungi that are found in the soil and decaying plant matter. Infection typically occurs via a traumatic inoculation of the fungus through the skin, and the fungus then proliferates beneath the epidermis.
Chromoblastomycosis is usually diagnosed through a physical examination of the affected area and a skin biopsy. The biopsy can reveal the presence of the fungus, which is typically dark-brown or black in color.
Differential diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis includes other fungal infections such as blastomycosis and histoplasmosis, as well as bacterial and parasitic infections.
Treatment of chromoblastomycosis typically consists of antifungal medications such as itraconazole or terbinafine, often in combination with cryotherapy or surgical excision of the lesion. In severe cases, systemic antifungal medications may be necessary.
The prognosis for chromoblastomycosis is typically good with early diagnosis and treatment. However, the condition can be difficult to treat and can recur if the fungus is not completely eradicated.