Chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of the spores of the Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii fungi, usually found in soil in the southwestern United States, Central America, and South America.
Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is typically done by a combination of chest X-ray, sputum examination, and a blood test (serologic tests) for the presence of Coccidioides antibodies. Other tests may include a bronchoalveolar lavage, CT scan, and biopsy.
Differential diagnosis includes other chronic pulmonary fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and aspergillosis.
Treatment for chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis may include antifungal medications, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, or a combination of medications. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases.
The prognosis for patients with chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is usually good, with most patients having a full recovery. However, some individuals may experience complications, including lung damage or chronic lung disease, which can be difficult to treat.