Pneumocystosis is a type of pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis jirovecii, which is an opportunistic infection most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals.
Pneumocystosis is typically diagnosed through a chest X-ray, sputum culture, and the detection of the fungus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or bronchial washings.
Pneumocystosis can be confused with other types of pneumonia, including bacterial, viral, and fungal pneumonias.
Treatment typically consists of antifungal medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pentamidine, or dapsone. Corticosteroids are also sometimes used to reduce inflammation in the lungs.
The prognosis for patients with pneumocystosis is generally good with prompt treatment. However, in advanced cases, the prognosis is poor.