Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor. It typically affects children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. The exact cause of OS is unknown, but certain genetic and environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease, including a history of radiation exposure, certain inherited conditions, and an increased risk of developing certain types of bone and joint disorders.
OS is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans), and biopsy. The biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
The differential diagnosis for OS includes other types of bone tumors, such as chondrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. It is important to differentiate OS from these other tumors, as the treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor.
The treatment of OS depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient’s age and general health. Treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor as well as chemotherapy. In some cases, radiation therapy may be used as well.
The prognosis for OS depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient’s age and general health. In general, the prognosis is better for younger patients and those with smaller tumors. For those with more advanced tumors, the prognosis is more guarded.