Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mouth is caused by the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of squamous cells and is typically found in the lips, floor of the mouth, and tongue. Risk factors associated with SCC of the mouth include smoking, chewing tobacco, and excessive alcohol consumption.
The diagnosis of SCC of the mouth is typically made using a physical exam, followed by imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. Biopsy may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and determine the stage of the cancer.
Other conditions that need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of SCC of the mouth include benign oral tumors such as fibroma, mucocele, and epulis; other types of cancer such as basal cell carcinoma and melanoma; and inflammatory and infectious conditions such as lichen planus and candidiasis.
Treatment of SCC of the mouth depends on the stage of the cancer and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy.
The prognosis for SCC of the mouth depends on the stage of the cancer and the response to treatment. The overall five-year survival rate for SCC of the mouth is approximately 50%.