Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas (NENs) are a rare type of tumour that develop from cells in the pancreas. They are usually slow-growing and can be benign or malignant. The exact cause of NENs is unknown, but genetic and environmental factors may play a role.
Diagnosis of NENs is usually done with imaging tests like Ultrasound, CT scans or MRI scans. Blood tests may also be done to measure hormone levels and look for tumour markers. Biopsies may also be necessary to confirm a diagnosis.
Differential diagnosis for NENs includes other types of pancreatic tumours, such as pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and other diseases that may cause similar symptoms, such as chronic pancreatitis.
Treatment of NENs depends on the type and stage of the tumour. Surgery is usually the first line of treatment, but chemotherapy and radiation may also be used.
The prognosis for NENs depends on the type and stage of the tumour. Benign NENs typically have a good prognosis, while malignant NENs may have a more uncertain outcome. Treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation may help to improve the prognosis.