Malignant neoplasms of the testis are the most common form of cancer in men between 15 and 35 years old. The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown, but there are some known risk factors, such as an undescended testicle, a family history of testicular cancer, or a personal history of testicular cancer.
Diagnosis of malignant testicular neoplasms is usually made based on physical examination, imaging studies and biopsy. An ultrasound will be performed to evaluate the size and shape of the testicles and to check for any abnormal masses. Blood tests may also be performed to measure markers of testicular cancer, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG).
Differential diagnosis of testicular cancer includes benign testicular tumors, such as Leydig cell tumors and Sertoli cell tumors, as well as infections, such as mumps, epididymitis, and orchitis.
Treatment of malignant testicular neoplasms typically involves surgical removal of the affected testicle, as well as chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The extent of treatment depends on the type and stage of cancer.
The prognosis for testicular cancer is generally favorable, with an overall five-year survival rate of 95%. However, the prognosis can vary depending on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient’s response to treatment.