Urothelial carcinoma is a type of cancer that affects the urinary organs, such as the bladder, kidney, and ureters. It can also involve overlapping sites of the urinary organs, such as the renal pelvis, urethra, and prostate. The exact cause of this cancer is unknown, but certain risk factors have been identified, including smoking, chronic bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals.
Urothelial carcinoma can be diagnosed through a combination of physical exams, imaging tests, and biopsies. Physical exams may include a rectal exam, digital exam, and cystoscopy. Imaging tests such as CT and MRI scans may be used to view the urinary organs. Biopsies are collected in order to confirm the diagnosis.
Differential diagnosis includes other types of cancer that can affect the urinary organs, such as bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancer. Other conditions that may need to be ruled out include benign tumors, cystitis, and urinary tract infections.
Treatment for urothelial carcinoma depends on the stage and type of cancer. Surgery may be needed to remove the tumor, and chemotherapy or radiation may be used to destroy any remaining cancer cells.
The prognosis for urothelial carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment can lead to a better outcome. In some cases, the cancer may be cured, but in other cases, it may recur or spread to other organs.