Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a type of pre-cancerous lesion where abnormal cells are found in the surface layer of the skin or in the lining of certain organs. These cells have not yet spread to surrounding tissue, but could potentially do so if not treated. The exact cause of CIS is unknown, but some factors that are associated with an increased risk of developing it include ultraviolet radiation, exposure to carcinogens, and certain genetic conditions.
CIS is usually diagnosed through a biopsy, where a sample of abnormal cells is taken and examined under a microscope. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs may also be used to check for any spread of the abnormal cells to other parts of the body.
Other conditions that may need to be ruled out in order to make a diagnosis of CIS include actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, and Bowen’s disease.
CIS is treated with either surgery or radiation therapy, depending on the size and location of the lesion. Surgery can be used to remove the entire lesion or part of it, while radiation therapy is used to target the abnormal cells and shrink them.
The prognosis for CIS is generally good, as it is a pre-cancerous condition and can be treated before it has the chance to spread. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, the chances of a full recovery are very high.