Nontoxic diffuse goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (especially iodine), autoimmune thyroiditis, and genetic predisposition.
Nontoxic diffuse goitre is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. The clinician may also order a thyroid function test to rule out any other causes of thyroid enlargement.
Other causes of thyroid enlargement, such as toxic nodular goitre, thyroid cancer, and Graves’ disease, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of nontoxic diffuse goitre can be made.
Treatment for nontoxic diffuse goitre is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause. If iodine deficiency is the cause, supplementation may be recommended. If autoimmune thyroiditis is the cause, steroid therapy may be used. Surgery may be recommended in some cases.
The prognosis for nontoxic diffuse goitre is generally good, depending on the underlying cause. Treatment can usually reduce the size of the thyroid gland, and symptoms can be relieved in most cases.