Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder caused by a deficiency in parathyroid hormone production. This can be caused by damage to the parathyroid glands from a variety of factors, including surgery, head and neck radiation, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications or toxins.
Hypoparathyroidism is diagnosed by measuring levels of calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and phosphorus in the blood. Low levels of calcium, high levels of phosphorus, and low levels of PTH are indicative of hypoparathyroidism. Imaging tests such as an ultrasound of the neck may also be used to look for evidence of parathyroid gland damage.
Differential diagnoses may include other conditions that cause low calcium levels, including vitamin D deficiency, hyperthyroidism, and malabsorption syndromes.
Treatment for hypoparathyroidism includes calcium and vitamin D supplements to maintain normal calcium levels, and medications such as calcitriol and parathyroid hormone analogs to help regulate calcium and phosphorus levels.
Hypoparathyroidism is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. With proper management, most patients can have a good quality of life.