Hyperprolactinaemia is a condition in which there is an excessive production of prolactin, a hormone that is primarily responsible for stimulating milk production. It can occur due to a number of factors, including a prolactinoma, which is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland, primary hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, certain medications such as antipsychotics and antidepressants, excessive stress, hypoglycemia, and kidney failure.
Diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia is typically based on a physical exam, hormone tests, imaging studies, and blood tests. If a prolactinoma is suspected, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is usually ordered to look for the presence of the tumor.
Differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia includes other hormone-related conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, and hyperthyroidism, as well as other medical conditions such as renal failure, hypoglycemia, and certain medications.
Treatment of hyperprolactinaemia primarily involves addressing the underlying cause. If a prolactinoma is present, it may be treated with medications to reduce prolactin levels, radiation therapy, or surgery. Other causes may be managed with lifestyle modifications, medications, or other therapies.
The prognosis for hyperprolactinaemia is generally good, especially if the underlying cause is treated. If a prolactinoma is present, the prognosis is generally good, especially if the tumor is small and can be managed with medications or radiation therapy.