Hypoaldosteronism is caused by a deficiency of the steroid hormone aldosterone, which is produced by the adrenal glands. It is commonly caused by adrenal insufficiency, which can be the result of an autoimmune disorder, a congenital defect, or the side effect of certain medications.
Hypoaldosteronism is typically diagnosed by measuring the aldosterone level in the blood and/or urine, and evaluating the patient’s medical history and physical examination. A serum electrolyte panel and a 24-hour urine collection may also be performed to detect abnormalities in sodium and potassium levels.
Other conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism include hyperaldosteronism, primary hyperparathyroidism, Conn’s syndrome, and Bartter’s syndrome.
Treatment for hypoaldosteronism usually involves replacement therapy with aldosterone, either as a pill or a topical cream. Other therapies may include potassium supplements, diuretics, and a low-salt diet.
The prognosis for hypoaldosteronism is generally good with proper treatment. With replacement therapy and lifestyle modifications, most patients are able to successfully manage their symptoms.