Hyperosmolality or hypernatraemia is a condition that occurs when the amount of sodium in the blood is higher than normal. It can be caused by excessive sodium intake, dehydration, kidney disease, excessive sweating, or other medical conditions.
The diagnosis of hyperosmolality or hypernatraemia is typically done through a blood test to measure the amount of sodium in the blood.
Differential diagnosis of hyperosmolality or hypernatraemia include other electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatraemia, as well as other medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, adrenal insufficiency, and other endocrine disorders.
Treatment of hyperosmolality or hypernatraemia depends on the underlying cause. In cases of dehydration, fluids and electrolytes may be administered intravenously to replenish lost fluids and electrolytes. Additionally, diuretics may be used to increase urine output and eliminate excess sodium. If the condition is caused by a medical condition, then specific treatment for that condition may be necessary.
The prognosis of hyperosmolality or hypernatraemia is usually good if the condition is treated promptly and correctly. However, if the condition is left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as coma or even death.