Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
ADHD is typically diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can also be found in adults. The diagnosis is made based on a clinical evaluation that includes a comprehensive history, physical examination, and psychosocial assessment.
Other conditions that may present with similar symptoms include learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, depression, and substance use disorder.
Treatment for ADHD typically includes a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle modifications. Stimulant medications are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD, but other medications may be used as well. Psychotherapy may involve cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, or psychodynamic therapy.
The prognosis for individuals with ADHD is generally good with timely and effective treatment. With proper treatment, individuals with ADHD can improve their ability to manage their symptoms and lead successful and productive lives.