Dementia due to HIV is caused by the virus attacking the brain, leading to cognitive decline and impairments in memory, behavior, language, and thinking. It is the most common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection.
Dementia due to HIV can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, lumbar punctures, and tests of mental status and physical condition. Blood tests can also be used to determine the presence of HIV antibodies.
Differential diagnosis of dementia due to HIV may include other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia.
Treatment for dementia due to HIV can involve medications to reduce HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy.
The prognosis for dementia due to HIV varies depending on the individual and the course of the disease. With proper treatment, HIV-associated dementia can be managed and many patients can return to their prior functioning level or maintain a stable level of functioning.