Seizures due to acute causes are typically caused by a sudden, unexpected event, such as a stroke, head injury, drug overdose, or metabolic disturbance (such as hypoglycemia or hyponatremia).
A diagnosis of seizure due to acute causes is made based on a thorough physical examination, patient history, and laboratory and imaging tests.
Differential diagnoses for seizure due to acute causes can include transient ischemic attack (TIA), headache, intoxication, syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES), and movement disorders.
Treatment for seizure due to acute causes typically includes medications, such as anticonvulsants or benzodiazepines, to control the seizure, as well as supportive care to address any underlying causes.
The prognosis for seizure due to acute causes is typically good, especially if the underlying cause is identified and treated. However, if the cause is not identified, or if the underlying cause is not treatable, the prognosis may be more guarded.