Vitiligo of the eyelid or periocular area is an acquired pigmentation disorder caused by the loss of melanocytes in the skin, resulting in white patches. It is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, where the body’s own immune system attacks the melanocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing pigment.
The diagnosis of vitiligo of the eyelid or periocular area is usually made by a dermatologist or ophthalmologist based on a physical examination. The affected area will appear as white patches without pigment. The size and shape of the patches may vary.
It is important to rule out other causes of depigmentation of the eyelid or periocular area such as contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, postinflammatory hypopigmentation, and nevus depigmentosus.
Vitiligo of the eyelid or periocular area is usually treated with topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. These medications are used to suppress the immune response and stop the destruction of melanocytes. Other treatments such as phototherapy and surgical treatments may also be used in some cases.
The prognosis for vitiligo of the eyelid or periocular area is generally good. The condition is not life-threatening and is usually manageable with treatment. However, recurrence is possible, and it is important to monitor the affected area for any signs of recurrence.