Injury of the deep peroneal nerve at the ankle or foot level is caused by direct trauma, overstretching, or compressive forces. It may also be caused by surgical procedures such as tendon transfers or ankle arthroscopy.
Diagnosis is usually made based on a physical examination and patient history. Symptoms include numbness and tingling in the foot and ankle, as well as weakness or paralysis of the foot and ankle muscles. Electromyography or nerve conduction velocity testing may be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Injury of the deep peroneal nerve should be distinguished from other nerve injuries in the ankle and foot, such as tibial nerve injury or sural nerve injury.
Treatment of deep peroneal nerve injury depends on the severity of the injury. Conservative treatment options include rest, ice, elevation, and medications for pain and inflammation. Surgery may be necessary to repair the nerve if the injury is severe.
The prognosis for deep peroneal nerve injury depends on the severity of the injury. In mild cases, the nerve may heal without treatment and the patient can expect to make a full recovery. In more severe cases, the patient may experience permanent nerve damage and muscle weakness.