Surgical site infections (SSIs) are caused by a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Common bacteria that can cause SSIs include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Fungi may include Candida species, Aspergillus species, and Cryptococcus species. Viruses may include herpes simplex virus, HIV, and hepatitis B and C.
Surgical site infections are typically diagnosed based on physical examination and laboratory tests. Physical examination may include checking the affected area for swelling, redness, or signs of infection such as pus. Laboratory tests may include cultures of the wound or blood to identify the causative organism.
Other conditions that may be confused with SSIs include cellulitis, abscesses, and other localized infections.
Treatment for SSIs usually involves antibiotics. The type of antibiotic and the duration of treatment depends on the causative organism. For more severe infections, surgical drainage of the infection may be necessary.
The prognosis for SSIs is generally good with prompt diagnosis and treatment. However, the prognosis can vary depending on the type of organism causing the infection and the severity of the infection.