Organ or organ space surgical site infections (SSI’s) are caused by bacteria entering the wound after surgery. These bacteria can come from the patient’s own body, from the environment, or from medical instruments and personnel. Risk factors for SSI’s include: poor hygiene, inadequate sterilization of medical instruments, prolonged surgery, poor nutrition, diabetes, and immunocompromised state.
Diagnosis of an SSI is based on the clinical presentation of the patient, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Clinical signs and symptoms include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage at the wound site. Laboratory tests such as blood cultures and wound cultures can help to identify the specific bacteria responsible for the infection. Imaging studies such as X-rays and CT scans can help to assess the extent of the infection.
Differential diagnosis of an SSI includes other infectious diseases such as cellulitis, abscesses, and sepsis, as well as other non-infectious causes such as trauma, foreign bodies, and chemical burns.
Treatment of an SSI depends on the type and extent of the infection. Antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat bacterial infections. Surgery may also be necessary to remove infected tissue.
Prognosis for SSIs is generally good, with most patients making a full recovery. However, the prognosis can vary depending on the type of infection, the extent of the infection, and the patient’s overall health.