Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are devices used to treat heart rhythm conditions. Complications can arise due to device failure, wrong implantation or programming, or due to the patient’s physiological condition.
Diagnosis of a pacemaker or ICD complication is done by physical examination, electrocardiography, imaging studies such as echocardiography or X-rays, and electrophysiological studies.
Differential diagnosis includes other causes of arrhythmia such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, thyroid dysfunction, and drugs.
Treatment for pacemaker or ICD complications depend on the type and severity of the complication. It may include changing the device settings, replacing the device, or medication.
The prognosis for pacemaker or ICD complications vary depending on the type and severity of the complication. In general, the prognosis is good if the complication is treated early and appropriately.