NE82.1/T82.1 Pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator dysfunction



Pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) dysfunction is caused by various factors, including lead fracture, component failure, infection, and poor lead positioning. It is also caused by electromagnetic interference and battery depletion.


Diagnosis is typically made with the help of electrocardiography (ECG) and radiography. Other tests such as echocardiography, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) may be used as well.

Differential diagnosis

Other cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, must be ruled out in order to diagnose pacemaker or ICD malfunction.


Treatment consists of device reprogramming, device replacement, and/or lead revision or replacement. Antibiotic therapy may be used to treat infection.


The prognosis depends on the underlying cause of the dysfunction. Treatment typically results in successful restoration of normal rhythm and functioning of the device.

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DISCLAIMER: Please note that all explAInations are generated by AI and are not fact checked by a medical professional. ICD ExplAIned do not assume liability for any injuries or harm based on the use of this medical information.