Pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead complications can be caused by infection, device malfunction, or damage to the lead or surrounding tissue.
Diagnosis of a lead complication typically involves imaging studies such as X-ray or MRI, as well as electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring.
Differential diagnosis includes other causes of cardiac arrhythmias, such as electrolyte imbalance, myocarditis, and other cardiac conditions.
Treatment of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead complications depends on the cause of the complication and may include lead extraction, lead replacement, or antibiotic therapy.
The prognosis for pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead complications is generally good, although the risk of complications increases with lead longevity.