Drowning or nonfatal submersion is caused by a person coming into contact with water and either not being able to swim or not getting out of the water quickly enough. It can also be caused by a medical condition that causes a person to have difficulty with swimming or getting out of the water.
Drowning or nonfatal submersion is usually diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. It is also important to assess the environment in which the drowning or submersion took place.
Differential diagnoses for drowning or nonfatal submersion include cardiac arrest, hypothermia, and other medical conditions that can cause difficulty with swimming or getting out of the water.
Treatment of drowning or nonfatal submersion depends on the severity of the incident and the underlying medical condition. Treatment may include CPR, oxygen therapy, IV fluids, medications, and/or hospitalization.
The prognosis for drowning or nonfatal submersion depends on the severity of the incident and the underlying medical condition. While the majority of people who experience a nonfatal submersion will make a full recovery, those with more severe cases may suffer from long-term complications such as brain damage or organ damage.