Fat embolism is a condition caused by the presence of fat particles in the bloodstream which obstruct blood vessels, leading to tissue damage and organ failure. It is most commonly seen in patients who have sustained an injury or undergone a medical procedure. The main cause of this condition is the release of fat particles from fractured or severely damaged bone or fat tissues. It can also be caused by medical procedures such as injection of fat into tissue or fat grafting.
Diagnosis of fat embolism is based on history of trauma or medical procedure, presence of fat particles in the bloodstream on laboratory testing, and imaging studies to confirm presence of fat particles in the vessels.
Differential diagnosis of fat embolism includes pulmonary embolism, pulmonary infarction, thromboembolism, and other conditions causing obstruction in the bloodstream.
Treatment of fat embolism includes supportive care, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, and medications to prevent further clotting and release of fat particles.
Fat embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition and the prognosis depends on the severity of the condition and the timely diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the prognosis of fat embolism.